I’ve started work on a new project; a copy and interpretation of the Kingsteignton Idol. This carved oak figure was excavated from the banks of the River Teign in Devon in 1867. Workmen from the Zitherixon Clay Works dug it out of the anaerobic deposits which had preserved the wood. Other objects found in the locality include a boat, a dugout canoe, moulds for copper alloy casting, pottery sherds and a bronze spearhead – these were all described by William Pengelly in 1875.
Pengelly was a geologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society “as little anxious and careful for posthumous fame as he was for celebrity and notoriety while living” (Ellis 1897:vii) who, after a few years working at sea on his father’s tramping cargo ship, became a teacher and tutor. He was essentially self-taught, yet was able to research and publish important fieldwork on the geology and palaeontology of Devon and Cornwall (Bishop 2004).
In his notes in volume 7 of the Devonshire Association’s Transactions, Pengelly was concerned to gather together the odd bits and pieces of information about interesting matters which otherwise might have been lost to general knowledge. The memoranda that he drew together were the first such collection published by the Association and comprise archaeological finds. The Kingsteignton Idol being in private ownership, it might not have become better known without the interest of Pengelly and his correspondents.
The Idol, “a strange and by no means beautiful work of art” (Pengelly 1875:200), is an upright male figure just over 33cm tall. There is a good set of drawings of it in Bryony Coles’ (1990) paper in the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. The Idol has an oval head with heavy brows and nose, a long neck, sharply cut torso but no arms, carefully carved penis and buttocks and short stubby legs with knees and little, short feet. Calibrated radiocarbon date OxA-1717 placed the Idol in the range 426-352 BC (Coles 1990:326).
The Idol has a hole drilled through the neck, side-to-side. Perhaps this was to take arms which could be pegged over the torso, a bit like the Roos Carr wooden figures (Coles 1990) (in Hull and East Riding Museum) that have a number of pegged parts. Another puzzle is the waxy deposits on parts of the Idol, which might be the remains of a resinous coating or something that accumulated whilst it was buried.
Discovered “25 feet below the surface”, the Idol was lying up against the trunk of a fallen oak tree (Pengelly 1875:200). Was it a votive figurine (“Idol”) for worship to some spirit of the water; or a child’s toy (“doll”), lost until found some 2300 years later by Messrs Watts, Blake, Bearne and Co’s labourers?
I shall post about this project periodically, describing my failures as well as successes. The aim is to make a copy of the Idol (probably a facsimile rather than replica) for handling, but also to interpret the figure, making a set of interchangeable arms which can be chosen by the handler and which could affect the way the Idol is understood.
Next up – procuring oak and preparing drawings.
Bishop, M.J. (2004) “Pengelly, William (1812–1894)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/21838, accessed 26 June 2014]
Coles, B. (1990) “Anthropomorphic Wooden Figures from Britain and Ireland” Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56:315-333
Ellis, F.S. (1897) “Preface” In Pengelly, H. (ed) A Memoir of William Pengelly, of Torquay, FRS, Geologist, with a Selection from his Correspondence London: John Murray
Pengelly, W. (1875) (ed) “Memoranda, Part 1” Report and Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art 7:197-202